Unit 8 Teaching Plan
Section A Legal and Moral Implications of Cloning
1. help the Ss to understand the main idea and grasp the structure of the text;
2. help Ss to grasp the key language points and grammatical structures in the text;
3. conduct a series of reading, listening, speaking and writing activities centered upon the theme of the unit
1. Cloning: The process of making a genetically identical organism through nonsexual means.
2. Bill Clinton: the 42nd President of the United States (1993-2001).
3. DNA: (deoxyribonucleic acid 脱氧核糖核酸) the chemical at the center of the cells of living things which controls the structure and purpose of each cell and carries genetic information during reproduction.
Pre-reading: Questions & Answers
1. From a medical standpoint, what are the positive and negative effects of human cloning?
2. From a social and moral standpoint, do you think cloning would be a good thing for humans?
3. What is your opinion of genetic engineering, i.e. the deliberate altering of genes to create human beings according to certain requirements?
1. Text Analysis: Main Idea and Devices for Developing It
Main idea of the text: When a world with human clones was suddenly within reach, people’s reactions to it were strong and varied. They puzzled over a number of questions about the legal and moral implications that had arisen from cloning.
Devices for developing it:
In the main part (the third part) of the passage, the author lists as many as 6 puzzles on the issue of cloning.
Why would anyone want to clone a human being in the first place? (Para. 4)
Will it be possible to clone the dead? (Para. 6)
Would a cloned human be identical to the original? (Para. 8)
What if parents decided to clone a child in order to harvest organs?(Para. 11) How would a human clone refer to the donor of its DNA? (Para. 14)
What are the other implications of cloning for society? (Para. 17)
Discussion(讨论法): The author deals with the 6 common puzzles by offering different opinions from different experts through the device of discussion.
Puzzle 1: Why would anyone want to clone a human being in the first place? (Para. 4)
Discussion: Most experts consider the human cloning falls into two broad categories: 1) parents clone a child to provide transplants for a dying child or to replace that child, and 2) adults might want to clone themselves. (Para. 5)
Puzzle 2: Will it be possible to clone the dead? (Para. 6)
Discussion: Perhaps, if the body is fresh, says one expert. The cloning method used by Wilmut’s lab requires combining an egg cell with the nucleus of a cell containing the DNA of the person to be cloned. And that means that the nucleus must be intact. Cells die and the cell nucleus begins to break apart after death. But, yes, in theory at least it might be possible. (Para. 7)
Puzzle 3: Would a cloned human be identical to the original? (Para. 8)
Discussion: Most of the physical differences between originals and copies are so minor that detection of them would require a sophisticated laboratory. The only possible exception is bearing children. Wilmut and his coworkers are not sure that Dolly will be able to have lambs.They will try to find out once she’s old enough to breed. (Para. 10)
Puzzle 4a: What if parents decided to clone a child in order to harvest organs? (Para. 11)
Discussion: Most experts agree that it would be psychologically harmful if a child sensed he had been brought into the world simply as an organ donor. But some parents already produce second children with nonfatal transplants in mind, and many experts do not oppose this. Cloning would increase the chances for a tissue match from 25 percent to nearly 100 percent. (Para. 12)
Puzzle 4b: What if cloned animals could be used as organ donors? (Para. 13)
Discussion: …But the human body attacks and destroys tissue from other species. To get around that, one company is trying to alter the pig’s genetic code to prevent pig organs from being attacked. If the company’s technicians succeed, it may be more efficient to produce such pigs by cloning than by current methods. (Para. 13)
Puzzle 5: How would a human clone refer to the donor of its DNA? (Para. 14)
Discussion: …Judith Martin, in her writings under the name of “Miss Manners”, suggests the phrase, “Most honored sir or madam”. Why? “One should always respect one’s ancestors,” she says, “regardless of what they did to bring one into the world.”…The editorial director of one dictionary says that the noun “clonee” may sound like a good term, but it’s not clear enough. Instead, he prefers “original” and “copy”. (Paras. 15-16)
Puzzle 6: What are the other implications of cloning for society? (Para. 17)
Discussion: …Specifically, some experts are concerned about the creation of a new (and disrespected) social class: “the clones”. One expert believes the situation could be comparable to what occurred in the 16th century, when Europeans puzzled over how to classify the unfamiliar inhabitants of the Americas, and endlessly debated whether or not they were humans. (Para. 18)
2. Structure Analysis
Part I (Para. 1): With the success of cloning an adult mammal, the world was suddenly brought into the reality of human cloning.
Devices for developing it: Induction (归纳法) (Para. 1)
Specific statements: S.1-5 of Para. 1 + Conclusion: S. 6 of Para. 1
Part II (Paras. 2-3): This part is about the world’s strong and immediate responses in the wake of Wilmut’s announcement.
Devices for developing it:
Exemplification (举例法) Para. 2 Comparison (比较法) Para. 3
Part III (Paras. 4-18): This part offers complete or partial answers, from the up-to-date knowledge, to the six questions on the legal and moral implications of cloning.
Devices for developing it:
Classification (分类法), Comparison (比较法), Argumentation (议论法).
Part IV (Para. 19): This part is intended to reaffirm the author’s opinion that, although the list of questions could go on, people are just beginning to wonder about the future of the world after cloning.
Devices for developing it: Reiteration（重申法）
Detailed reading: expressions & patterns
1. word that…/of…关于······的消息
Word of his sexual scandal has been spread fast on the streets.
2. to succeed in (doing) sth. 成功地做了某事
If they succeed in establishing a cease-fire, the UN will send in peace-keeping forces.
3. to work for适用于；为······工作
China’s successful experience in economical development may work for most of the developing countries.
4. within (one’s) reach在伸手能及的范围以内，近的；方便到达
Rather than choose an ambitious goal beyond his reach, he would choose a goal within his reach.
5. to come to life活跃起来，表现生动
The dull play really came to life through the performance of these young people.
6. in the wake of 随着，紧跟着
Human societies have to suffer one disaster after another that follows in the wake of the ecological damage.
7. to draft guidelines for为······起草指导方针
She was busy drafting her speech for next month’s speech contest.
8. in the first place首先；起初；其一
It is unwise to love at first sight. In the first place you know little about each other and in the second it is hard for such love to last long.
9. to fall into可分成；属于
Things of a kind come together; people of a mind fall into a group.
10. to break apart分裂瓦解
The fortress is most liable to break apart from within.
11. in theory在理论上
Your plan for seeking happiness sounds fine in theory, but I don’t know if it’ll work in practice.
12. to be identical to/with . 与······一模一样；就等于
His indulgence in online love affairs is identical to neglecting his studies.
13. in terms of从······方面（来说）； 根据；按照
He thinks of everything in terms of money.
14. What if…? 要是······怎么办 / 怎么样？
Don’t get involved in love games too early. What if you suffer from failure in love?
15. to bring sth./sb. into the world生产；生（孩子）
Since the electric bulb was brought into the world, mankind has been freed from his dependence on oil lamp or candle for light at night.
16. with sth. in mind出于······目的; 考虑到某事
Failure is the mother of success. With this in mind, he began to take a new look at the failure in this experiment.
17. to get around/round 克服; 回避 She is trying to get round this tricky problem by changing the subject.
18. to give birth to sb./sth. 生(孩子)；产(仔) Our joint efforts finally gave birth to an effective solution to the problem.
19. regardless of不顾，不管
Those who, regardless of objective conditions, act as they think fit are less likely to succeed.
20. to leave confusion over留下难题，迷惑
The teacher’s explicit explanation left the students no confusion over that abstract theory.
21. to be concerned about/over担心，担忧
He has never been concerned about what others think of him.
22. to be comparable to/with可与······相比；类似于
In the eyes of some people, love is comparable to a maze, full of lures and traps.
23. to puzzle over努力思考
He puzzled over the problem for hours, without making head or tail of it.
24. to wonder about对······好奇；想知道；对······疑惑
I keep wondering about why some people can reap without sowing.
1. Typical patterns for advancing one’s arguments
1)原句: If cloned animals could be used as organ donors, we wouldn’t have to worry about cloning twins for transplants. (L. 48)
Pattern: If sb. / sth. could be / do sth., we wouldn’t have to worry about (doing) sth. else. ·
If everyone could realize natural resources are not inexhaustible, we wouldn’t have to worry about any blind exploitation of them.
If we can develop a strong sense of responsibility for society in the course of our college studies, our elder generations won’t have to worry about the future of China.
2)原句: “One should always respect one’s ancestors,” she says, “regardless of what they did to bring one into the world”. (L. 59)
Pattern: Sb. should always do sth. regardless of what / how sb. / sb. else does / did… ·
Regardless of whatever you do, you should always adhere to the
truth—no gains without pains.
Regardless of how highly people think of you, you should always keep in mind that modesty helps one make progress while conceit makes one lag behind.
2. Typical patterns for comparison and contrast
1) 原句:Like the Theory of Relativity, the splitting of the atom, and the first space flight, Dolly’s appearance has generated a long list of difficult puzzles for scientists, politicians, and philosophers. (L. 11)
Pattern: Like sth. else, the appearance / arrival / birth / invention of sth. new generates / produces / makes…
Like any other wars in history, the Iraq war has generated a long list of difficult postwar problems for the world.
Like other landmark inventions in the history of science, the birth of computer has made enormous differences to the way people study, live and even see the world.
2)原句: One expert believes the situation could be comparable to what occurred in the 16th century. (L. 68)
Sb. believes / thinks / agrees / argues sth. / sb. could (couldn’t) be comparable / similar to sth. / sb. else.
Many young people argue that love could be comparable to a vast expanse of water, which either nurtures your heart or floods your reasons.
The philosophers believe that the sorrow of separation could be comparable to a turmoil, which can neither be severed by scissors nor sorted out within reason.
3. Typical patterns for showing sb.’s reactions to sth.
原句:In the wake of Wilmut’s announcement, governments hurried to draft guidelines for the unknown, a future filled with incredible possibilities. (L. 6)
Pattern: In the wake of sth., sb. hurries / begins to…
In the wake of that failure, he hurried to look for chances of reproving himself.
In the wake of that successful exchange with foreigners, she began to become more conscious of the importance of English in cultural exchanges with foreign countries.
1. Essay summary (P. 225)
Views on Cloning
3. Finish the exercises
Unit 8 Section B
Who will take advantage of cloning
1. to learn the reading skill;
2. to learn various attitudes toward and the use of cloning technology
3. to learn some words and phrases
Reading Skills: Identifying the Writer’s Purpose (II)
Do exercise XV on P. 235
When you read Passage B, scan it for clues that help you identify the writer’s aim. Use the questions below to guide your scanning, then decide: Is the text informational, persuasive or meant mainly to entertain?
1. The title is actually a question. By using a question as a title, the author tries his best to attract the readers’ attention. Obviously, it’s about the possibility or even legality of human cloning. The author gives us a thorough analysis as to who will take advantage of human cloning.
2. The language is formal and serious. Besides, it is emotional. The evidence for this is the repeated employment of rhetorical questions.
3. Altogether, there are seven questions, including the one in the title. Of the seven, four are rhetorical questions. They appear respectively at the end of Paragraph 2, Paragraph 3, Paragraph 4, and at the beginning of Paragraph 6.
4. Rhetorical questions are mainly intended to stir up the listeners’ or readers’ emotions, to put them off guard, making them ready to accept the speaker’s or writer’s opinion. Rhetorically, this is called emotional appeal. By using rhetorical questions four times, the author of this text is appealing to the readers to accept her idea “Don’t just say no to human cloning”. With all the above in view, we can see that the text is persuasive.
1. panic: n. (a) sudden very strong feeling of anxiety and fear 恐慌, 惊慌 v. (cause a person or an animal to) be affected with panic (使)惊慌
He got in a panic that he would forget his lines on stage.
The crowd panicked at the sound of the explosion.
2. send…into: make…enter a certain state 使处于（某种状态），使变得
Jane’s school report sent Father into a terrible temper.
3. at the prospect of/that …: when aware of the possibility of/that
He felt nervous at the prospect of seeing his new boss.
4. grow out of: have sth. as a source 由……而生，起因于; get too big for
Most international firms have grown out of small family businesses.
grow from 由...长大; 由...发展起来
grow in 增加; 在...方面成长
grow into 成长为; 变得成熟有经验
grow up 长大; 成人[熟]; 兴起; 发展
grow up into 长大成为……
5. constitute: v. 1. be or be considered as 是, 构成 2. form or make up (sth.) 组成，构成
Nuclear weapons constitute a very real threat to world peace.
6. gross: a. 1. clearly wrong 明显错误的 2. total总的，总共的
The court has made a gross mistake in sending an innocent man to prison.
7. make sense: be a wise course of action 有道理，合乎情理；明智
It makes sense to take care of your health.
bring sb. to his senses 使某人恢复理性
come to one’s senses (昏迷后)苏醒过来
in one’s right senses 有理性；神志清醒
out of one’s senses 失去理智，精神错乱
in a sense 从某种意义上说
make sense of 理解，弄懂······的意思
8. vivid: a. producing very clear, powerful and detailed images in the mind 鲜艳的， 鲜明的，生动的，逼真的
Parts of my childhood are so vivid to me that they could be memories of yesterday.
vivify v. 赋予生命；使活泼；使生动
vivisection n. (动物)活体解剖
revive v. 复活；苏醒；重演
revival n. 回复；苏醒；(R-)文艺复兴
survive v. 继续存在；较某人活得长久
survival n. 残存；残存的人(物)
9. turn out: prove to be; come to be known that 证实是，原来是
Things turned out to be exactly as the professor had foreseen.
turn against (使)变成和······敌对
turn down 减弱；拒绝，不接受
turn in 睡觉；上交
turn to 向······求助；求得安慰
turn up 出现
turn upside down 把······倒过来：把······完全颠倒
10. on/upon reflection: after considering sth. again 再考虑后
Upon reflection, I feel I made the wrong decision.
11. for the sake of sth./doing sth.: in order to get or keep sth. 为了得到或拥有
He finally gave up smoking for the sake of health.
12. carry out: perform or conduct 进行，实施
If my instructions had been carried out, the accident would not have happened.
13. in the name of: using the name of; for the sake of 借······之名；为······目的
In the course of history, many cruel deeds have been committed in the name of religion.
14. stand a chance of: have a chance of (achieving sth.) 有可能（取得）
You stand a very good chance of passing the exam if you work hard.
15. resign oneself to: decide that one has to accept a difficult or unpleasant situation
The children have had to resign themselves to the fact that their father has gone.
pass on: hand or give sth. (to sb. else), esp. after receiving or using it oneself 传递，传给
He tried to pass the job on to me, but I soon got rid of it.
16. take a chance on: take a risk on 冒险
I don’t know whether we have enough money to sustain the whole holiday as we have planned, but I’m prepared to take a chance on it.
Do the exercises.